Executive Summary

Water is essential to human survival. According to a 2020 United Nations Development Report, water is part of the solution to the current climate crisis. Water is also the primary medium through which we feel the impact of climate change. This, coupled with pollution and biodiversity loss, makes sustainable utilisation and conservation of shared water ecosystems critical for our survival. Mombasa County is, due to its geographical location and make up, susceptible to adverse impacts of climate change such as flooding, long dry spells, and rising sea levels. To name a few, pollution, unsustainable utilisation, deforestation, and inadequate resources are some of the main hinderances towards sustainable water resource development, utilisation and conservation in the County. A study conducted by Econews Africa examines the state of utilisation, management and conservation of shared water ecosystems in the County. It identifies the gaps and challenges, and proposes possible policy responses.

The findings and recommendations by this study are essential in equipping decision-makers with evidence-based policy options to enhancing sustainable shared water ecosystem utilization and conservation in Mombasa County. The key findings in summary are:

  • The county lacks major water resources of its own and mainly relies on 3 sources from the neighbouring counties namely Mzima springs in Taita Taveta County, Malele springs in Kwale county and Baricho alluvial aquifer in Kilifi County
  • Main natural water resources in Mombasa County are Tudor creek, River Mtopanga, Ziwa la Ng’ombe and River Mtsapuni/Mkapuni and the Indian Ocean.
  • The conditions of shared water resources are characterised by reducing water levels as a result of long dry spells
  • There is significant pollution from human and commercial activities
  • Communities and users are detached from ecosystems
  • There are trans county (Kilifi, Kwale, Taita Taveta and Mombasa) conflicts over the shared water resource

For more information, click the link below

Shared Water Ecosystems – Mombasa County Policy Brief